🍒 France 19-24 Wales: Six Nations 2019 – as it happened | Sport | The Guardian

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Time zone difference or offset between the local current time in Australia – New South Wales – Sydney and France – Île-de-France – Paris. The numbers of hours difference between the time zones.


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Current local time in United Kingdom – Wales – Cardiff. Get Cardiff's weather and area codes, time zone and DST. Explore Cardiff's sunrise and sunset, moonrise and moonset.


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Find out the latest fixtures from Wales' International team brought to you by the Football Association of Wales.


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Delight for France U20s while England and Wales prepare for battle


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Wales vs France: TV channel, live stream, kick-off time, and team news for Six Nations rugby 2018 The Six Nations draws to a close this weekend with three teams still able to finish second. Les.


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Current local time in United Kingdom – Wales – Cardiff. Get Cardiff's weather and area codes, time zone and DST. Explore Cardiff's sunrise and sunset, moonrise and moonset.


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Wales v France rugby tickets 2020 (France Pays de Galles : réservez ici votre billet) are getting more difficult to secure.Getting hold of Wales rugby tickets is becoming increasingly difficult - but how to buy Wales v France rugby tickets for the Six nations game in 2020 (France v Wales 2021 match is in Paris on 20/03/2021)?


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Wales beat host nation Argentina 30-25, while the French came up with a 36-20 win over Fiji in the other game in the Welsh pool. You have to go back to 2013 for the only time Wales have reached the final, so could this be the year that Dewi Lake’s side goes one better?


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Lee Bowyer Kieron Dyer fight (full Match of the Day clip - Saturday 2nd April 2005) - Duration: 19:52. Dan Casey 992,914 views


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France snatched a dramatic and controversial Six Nations win over Wales in an extraordinary encounter. Trailing by five points with the clock ticking past 100 minutes, Damien Chouly drove over.


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I think the conditions won the game for us today.
Camille Lopez and Wenceslas Lauret react at the end of the match.
The ball goes loose, Gareth Davies claims itturns and boots it into the stand.
France have the ball just inside the Welsh half as the clock goes into the red.
Ntamack advances, but Tipuric makes the tackle.
Thirty seconds to go.
There are 60 article source remaining.
They win a penalty after a Welsh player picks up a Gareth Davies knock-on and France kick for the corner.
Gael Fickou concedes the scrum with a forward pass and Wales france game time alleviate the pressure for the time being at least.
Add on two more for the conversion.
North celebrates scoring his second wales france game time />France 19-17 Wales Lopez puts the French ahead once again, slotting over a penalty awarded after Wales failed to get the ball out of their wales france game time scrum.
That massive French pack was just too powerful for them.
Having been replaced earlier by Dan Biggar, Gareth Anscombe comes back off the bench and goes in at full-back.
France return it and win the turnover and Julien Marchand surges forward.
Penalty advantage for Wales and Dan Biggar sets off up the games video time machine on what amounts to a free play.
No advantage is forthcoming, so Wales have a penalty after Demba Bamba pops wales france game time of the scrum.
As I type that, France win a penalty, which Camille Lopez pulls wide from a long way out.
They could have done with that to steady their jitters.
Dan Biggar, on from the bench, drives forward and a ruck forms.
The ball is played inside to Ross MOriarty, who crashes over.
On BBC, the commentary team are unanimous in their opinion that it was a harsh decision.
France 16-14 Wales A shocking error by Yohann Huget allows George North in wales france game time score a second try for Wales.
The France winger was sliding back over his line to collect a terrible kick for the corner, but let the wet ball squirt out from under his arm and into play.
He can only watch in horror as George North comes from nowhere to perform an wales france game time pick-up and touch down for what amounts to a gift.
A French knock-on gives Wales a scrum just inside the France half.
France 16-7 Wales Wales go through the phases — 10 of them — and score a try out of nothing.
A missed tackle by Paul Willemse share best real time online games for android authoritative Josh Adams to break through the defensive line and he draws a man before passing to Tomas Williams, who slides over.
Anscombe slots over for the extra two points.
Tomos Williams slides over to put Wales back in the match.
Gareth Anscombe wriggles past Morgan Parra to get to the France 22.
Wales over-run the ball and Ken Owens mishandles.
Yet another handling error for Wales - their 12th.
France have the scrum on their own 22.
Josh Adams claims for Wales.
Wales recovered in the second half to lose 25-21.
This was also the last time they failed to score a first half point.
The French flew out of the traps, while their opponents have yet to find any kind of momentum at all.
He makes no mistake, turning away and fist-pumping excitedly as Wayne Barnes signals half-time.
Anscombe kicks towards the centre, keeping the ball on the pitch.
A five-metre scrum and Wales have the put-in.
Parra kicks for the corner and Arthur Iturria claims the ball at the subsequent line-out.
Ken Owens takes the throw-in but fails to find his man.

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Wales Six Nations 2018 Fixtures. Wales played three home matches (vs Scotland, Italy and France) and two away matches (vs England and Ireland) in the 2018 Six Nations Championship. With three victories and two losses, Wales ended the 2018 Six Nations Championship in runners-up spot.


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France vs Wales rugby score: Six Nations 2019 - George North stars in comeback. Wales were trailing 16-0 at half-time but capitalised on two crucial France errors to emerge with a dramatic.


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Extended Highlights: France v Wales

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France and Wales have played each other at rugby union since 1908. A total of 97 matches have been played, with Wales winning 50 times, France 44 times and the remaining three finishing as draws.


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It game of time scalebound all bordered by to thethe to the north and west, and the to the south.
It had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km 2 8,023 sq mi.
Wales has over 1,680 miles 2,700 km of coastline and is largely mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Yr Wyddfaits highest summit.
The country lies within the and has a changeable.
The whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the under the.
Distinctive developed in the 19th century.
Welsh liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century bywas displaced by the growth of and the.
Welsh national feeling grew over the century; was formed in 1925 and the in 1962.
Established under thethe holds responsibility for a range of.
At the dawn of thedevelopment of the and industries transformed the country from an agricultural society into an industrial nation; the 's exploitation caused a rapid expansion of Wales' population.
Two-thirds of the population live inincluding, and the nearby.
Now that the country's traditional extractive and heavy wales france game time have gone or are in decline, Wales' economy depends on thelight and service industries and.
Although Wales closely shares its political and social history with the rest of Great Britain, and a majority of the population in most areas speaks as a first language, the country has retained a distinct and is officially.
Over 560,000 speakers live in Wales, and the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west.
From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the "land of song", in part due to the tradition.
At many international sporting events, such as theand theWales has its own national teams, though at theWelsh athletes compete as part of a.
The -speaking came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the in particular, and Wēalas when referring to their lands.
The modern names for some lands e.
Historically inthe words were not restricted to modern Wales or to the Welsh but were used to refer to anything that the Anglo-Saxons associated with the Britons, including other non-Germanic territories in Britain e.
The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, and Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales.
These words both of which are pronounced are descended from the word combrogi, meaning "fellow-countrymen".
The use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the after the arrival of the Anglo-Saxons of the Welsh Brythonic-speaking people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland English: The Old North.
It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, different from other peoples.
In particular, the term was not applied to the or the peoples, who are of similar heritage, culture, and language to the Welsh.
The word came into use as a self-description probably before the 7th century.
It is attested in a praise poem to Moliant Cadwallon, by Afan Ferddig c.
Inthe word Cymry was used throughout the to describe the Welsh, though the older, more generic term Brythoniaid continued to be used to describe any of the including the Welsh and was the more common literary term until c.
Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh.
The forms of these names, Cambrian, Cambric andsurvive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales, Welsh and the.
Examples include the which cover much of Wales and gave their name to thethe newspaperand the organisations, and the.
Outside Wales, a related form survives as the name inwhich was once a part of Yr Hen Ogledd.
Thewhich is thought to have been closely related to Welsh, was spoken in this area until around the 12th century.
This form also appears at times in literary references, as in the " " ofwhere the character of is described as the eponymous King of Cymru.
Historya late Neolithic chambered tomb on Anglesey Wales has been inhabited by for at least 29,000 years.
Continuous human habitation dates from the end of thebetween 12,000 and 10,000when from began to migrate to Great Britain.
At that time sea levels were much lower than today, and the shallower parts of what is now the were dry land.
The east coast of present-day England and the coasts of present-day Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands were connected by the former landmass known asforming the British Peninsula on the.
Wales was free of by about 10,250 BP, the warmer climate allowing the area to become heavily wooded.
The post-glacial rise in sea level separated Wales and Ireland, forming the.
Doggerland was submerged by the North Sea and, by 8,000 BP, the British Peninsula had become an island.
By the beginning of the c.
Neolithic colonists integrated with the indigenous people, gradually changing their lifestyles from a nomadic life of hunting and gathering, to become settled farmers about 6,000 BP — the.
They cleared the forests to establish pasture and to cultivate the land, developed new technologies such as ceramics and textile production, and built such asand between about 5,800 BP and 5,500 BP.
In common with people living all over Britain, over the following centuries the people living in what was to become known as Wales assimilated immigrants and exchanged ideas of the and cultures.
According to and others, Wales in the Late Bronze Age was part of that also included the other.
This view, sometimes called "Atlantic-Celtic", stands against the view that the Celtic languages have their origins farther east with the.
By the time of the the area of modern Wales had been divided among the tribes of the,and for centuries.
Roman era The Roman conquest of Wales began in AD 48 and took 30 years to complete.
Roman rule lasted over 300 years.
The campaigns of conquest are the most widely known feature of Wales during thebecause of the spirited, but ultimately unsuccessful, defence of their homelands by two native tribes: the and the.
Roman rule in Wales was a military occupation, save for the southern coastal region ofeast of thewhere there is a legacy of Romanisation.
The only town in Wales founded by the Romans,is in south east Wales.
Both Caerwent andalso in southern Wales, became Roman.
Wales had a rich mineral wealth.
The Romans used their to extract large amounts ofandas well as modest amounts of some other metals such as and.
Roman economic development was concentrated in south-eastern Britain, and no significant industries located in Wales.
This was largely a matter of circumstance, as Wales had none of the necessary materials in suitable combination, and the forested, mountainous countryside was not amenable to industrialisation.
Although Latin became the official language of Wales, the people tended to continue to speak in.
While Romanisation was far from complete, the upper classes of Wales began to consider themselves Roman, particularly after the that granted to all free men throughout the Empire.
Further Roman influence came through the spread ofwhich gained many followers when Christians were allowed to worship freely; state persecution ceased in the 4th century, as a result of issuing an in 313.
Early historians, including the 6th-century clerichave noted 383 as a significant point in Welsh history, as it is stated in literature as the foundation point of several medieval royal dynasties.
In that year the Roman generalor Macsen Wledig, stripped all of western and northern Britain of troops and senior administrators, to launch a successful bid for imperial power; continuing to rule Britain from as emperor.
Gildas, writing in about 540, says that Maximus departed Britain, taking with him all of its Roman troops, armed bands, governors and the flower of its youth, never to return.
Having left with the troops and Roman administrators, and planning to continue as the ruler of Britain in the future, his practical course was to transfer local authority to local rulers.
The earliest Welsh genealogies give Maximus the role of founding father for several royal dynasties, including those of and.
It was this transfer of power that has given rise to the belief that he was the father of the Welsh Nation.
He is given as the ancestor of a Welsh king on theerected nearly 500 years after he left Britain, and he figures in lists of the.
Post-Roman era Britain in 500: The areas shaded pink on the map were inhabited by thehere labelled Welsh.
The pale blue areas in the east were controlled bywhilst the pale green areas to the north were inhabited by the and.
The 400-year period following the collapse of Roman rule is the most difficult to interpret in the history of Wales.
After the in AD 410, much of the lowlands of Britain to the east and south-east was overrun by various.
Before extensive studies of the distribution ofsome previously maintained that native were displaced by the invaders.
This idea has been discarded in the face of evidence that much of the population has, at the latest, era origins, but probably lateor at earliest origins with little contribution from Anglo-Saxon source areas.
However, by AD 500, the land that would become Wales had divided into a number of kingdoms free from Anglo-Saxon rule.
The kingdoms of,and emerged as independent Welsh.
Archaeological evidence, in the Low Countries and what was to become England, shows early Anglo-Saxon migration to Great Britain reversed between 500 and 550, which concurs with Frankish chronicles.
John Davies notes this as consistent with the victory atattributed to by.
This tenacious survival by the and their descendants in wales france game time western kingdoms was to become the foundation of what we now know as Wales.
With the loss of the lowlands, England's kingdoms of andand laterwrestled with Powys, Gwent and Gwynedd to define the frontier between the two peoples.
Having lost much of what is now the to Mercia in the 6th and early 7th centuries, a resurgent late-7th-century Powys checked Mercian advances.
According tothis endeavour may have been with the agreement of Powys kingas this boundary, extending north from the valley of the to the Dee estuary, gave to Powys.
Another theory, after carbon dating placed the dyke's existence 300 years earlier, is that it may have been built by the post-Roman rulers of.
King seems to have continued this consultative initiative when he created a larger earthwork, now known as Clawdd Offa.
Davies wrote of 's study of Offa's Dyke: "In the planning of it, there was a degree of consultation with the kings of Powys and Gwent.
On the Long Mountain near Trelystan, the dyke veers to the east, leaving the fertile slopes in the hands of the Welsh; nearit was designed to ensure that Cadell ap Brochwel retained possession of the Fortress of Penygadden.
Offa's Dyke largely remained the frontier between the Welsh and English, though the Welsh would recover by the 12th century the area between the Afon Dyfrdwy and the Conwy, known then as.
By the 8th century, the eastern borders with the had broadly been set.
In 853, the raided Anglesey, but in 856, defeated and killed their leader, Gorm.
The Britons of Wales later made their peace with the Vikings and allied with the Norsemen occupying Northumbria to conquer the north.
This alliance later broke down and Anarawd came to an agreement withking ofwith whom he fought against the west Welsh.
According toin 894, "Anarawd came with the Angles and laid waste Ceredigion and Ystrad Tywi.
The Germanic tribes who now dominated these lands were invariably called Saeson, meaning "".
The Welsh continued to call themselves Brythoniaid Brythons or Britons well into thethough the first written evidence of the use of Cymru and y Cymry is found in a praise poem to Moliant Cadwallon, by Afan Ferddig c.
Inbelieved to be written around 930—942, the words Cymry and Cymro are used as often as 15 times.
However, from the Anglo-Saxon settlement onwards, the people gradually begin to adopt the name Cymry over Brythoniad.
His sons, in turn, would found three principal dynasties for Gwynedd, for and for Powys.
Maredudd's great-grandson through his daughter Princess r.
Historian states that Gruffydd was "the only Welsh king ever to rule over the entire territory of Wales.
Thus, from about 1057 until his death in 1063, the whole of Wales recognised the kingship of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn.
For about seven brief years, Wales was one, under one ruler, a feat with neither precedent nor successor.
Starting in the 1070s, these lords began conquering land in southern and eastern Wales, west of the.
The frontier region, and any English-held lordships in Wales, became known as Marchia Wallie, thein which the were subject to neither nor.
The area of the March varied as the fortunes of the Marcher Lords and the Welsh princes ebbed and flowed.
His grandson also secured the recognition of the title from with the in 1267.
Later however, a succession of disputes, including the imprisonment of Llywelyn's wifedaughter ofculminated in the first invasion by.
As a result of military defeat, the exacted Llywelyn's fealty to England in 1277.
Peace was short lived and, with the 1282the rule of the Welsh princes permanently ended.
With Llywelyn's death and his brother prince 's execution, the few remaining did homage for their lands to.
Llywelyn's head was carried through London on a spear; his baby daughter was locked in the atwhere she remained until her death 54 years later.
The English interpretation of the treason of Llywelyn was that his fiefdom had to the king.
It defined all of Wales as "annexed lego upon a time video game release united" to the English Crown, still separate from England but under the same monarch.
The king ruled directly in two areas: the Statute divided the north and delegated administrative duties to the andand further south in western Wales the King's authority was delegated to the.
The existing royal lordships of and remained unchanged, and the remainder of Wales was still controlled by the marcher lords.
His son, the futurewas born at Edward's new castle at in 1284.
He became the first English in 1301, which at the time provided an income from northwest Wales known as the.
The title is granted by the monarch to the as a personal honour or dignity, and is not heritable, on accession to the throne.
After the failed revolt in 1294—95 of — who styled himself Prince of Wales in the — and the rising of 1316the next major uprising was that led byagainst.
In 1404, Owain was reputedly crowned Prince of Wales in the presence of emissaries from France, Spain and Scotland.
Glyndŵr went on to hold parliamentary assemblies at several Welsh towns, including.
But the rebellion failed, and Owain went into hiding in 1412; peace was essentially restored in Wales by 1415.
The last remnants of Celtic-tradition were abolished and replaced by English law by the.
All of Wales became unified with the kingdom of England, in the legal jurisdiction of ; the "Principality of Wales" began to refer to the whole country, though it remained a "principality" only in a ceremonial sense.
The lordships of the Marches were abolished, and Wales began electing members of the Westminster parliament.
Industrial Wales Penrhyn Slate Quarries, 1852 Prior to the Britishwhich saw a rapid economic expansion between 1750 and 1850, there were signs of small-scale industries scattered throughout Wales.
These ranged from industries connected to agriculture, such as milling and thethrough to mining and quarrying.
Until the Industrial Revolution, Wales had always been reliant on its agricultural output for its wealth and employment and the earliest industrial businesses were small scale and localised in manner.
The emerging industrial period commenced around the development of copper smelting in the area.
With access to local coal deposits and a harbour that could take advantage of Cornwall's copper mines and the copper deposits being extracted from the largest copper mine in the world at on Anglesey, Swansea developed into the world's major centre for non-ferrous metal smelting in the 19th century.
The second metal industry to expand in Wales was iron smelting, and iron manufacturing became prevalent in both the north and the south of the country.
In the north of Wales, 's Ironworks at was a significant industry, while in the south, a second world centre of metallurgy was founded inwhere the four ironworks of, Plymouth and became the most significant hub of iron manufacture in Wales.
In the 1820s, south Wales alone accounted for 40% of all manufactured in Britain.
In the late 18th century, slate quarrying began to expand rapidly, most notably in north Wales.
Theopened in 1770 bywas employing 15,000 men by the late 19th century, and along withit dominated the Welsh slate trade.
Although slate quarrying has been described as 'the most Welsh of Welsh industries', it is coal mining which has become the single industry synonymous with Wales and its people.
Initially, coal seams were exploited to provide energy for local metal industries but, with the opening of canal systems and later the railways, Welsh coal mining saw a boom in its demand.
As the was exploited, Cardiff, Swansea, and grew as world exporters of coal.
By its height in 1913, Wales was producing almost 61 million tons of coal.
As well as in south Wales, there was also a significant coalfield in the north-east of the country, particularly around.
As Wales was reliant on the production of rather than consumer goods, it possessed few of the skilled craftspeople and artisans found in the workshops of or in England and had few factories producing finished goods — a key feature of most regions associated with the Industrial Revolution.
However, there is increasing support that the industrial revolution was reliant on harnessing the energy and materials provided by Wales and, in that sense, Wales was of central importance.
Modern Wales Early 20th century Battle at Mametz Wood by 1918 Historian described Wales on the eve of the as a "relatively placid, self-confident and successful nation".
Output from the coalfields continued to increase, with the Rhondda Valley recording a peak of 9.
The outbreak of the First World War 1914—1918 saw Wales, as part of the United Kingdom, enter hostilities with Germany.
A total of 272,924 Welshmen served in the war, representing 21.
Of these, roughly 35,000 were killed.
The two most notable battles of the War to include were those at on the Somme and the.
The first quarter of the 20th century also saw a shift in the political landscape of Wales.
Since 1865, the had held a parliamentary majority in Wales and, following theonly one non-Liberal Member of Parliament, ofrepresented a Welsh constituency at Westminster.
Yet by 1906, industrial dissension and political militancy had begun to undermine Liberal consensus in the southern coalfields.
In 1916, became the first Welshman to become Prime Minister of Britain when he was made head of the.
In December 1918, Lloyd George was re-elected at the head of a Conservative-dominated coalition government, and his poor handling of the 1919 coal miners' strike was a key factor in destroying support for the Liberal party in south Wales.
The industrial workers of Wales began shifting towards a new political organisation, established by Hardie and others to ensure an elected representation for the working class, which is now called the Labour Party.
When in 1908 the became affiliated to the Labour Party, the four Labour candidates sponsored by miners were all elected as MPs.
By 1922, half the Welsh seats at Westminster were held by Labour politicians—the start of a Labour hegemony that dominated Wales into the 21st century.
Mid 20th century After economic growth in the first two decades of the 20th century, Wales' staple industries endured a prolonged slump from the early 1920s to the late 1930s, leading to widespread unemployment and poverty in the south Wales valleys.
For the first time in centuries, the population of Wales went into decline; unemployment reduced only with the production demands of the.
The war saw Welsh servicemen and women fight in all the major theatres, with some 15,000 of them killed.
Bombing raids brought major loss of life as the targeted the docks atand.
After 1943, 10 per cent of Welsh conscripts aged 18 were sent to work in the coal mines, where there were labour shortages; they became known as.
Of the political parties active in Wales, only took a neutral stance, on the grounds that it was an "imperialist war".
Late 20th century The 20th century saw a revival in Welsh national feeling.
Plaid Cymru was formed in 1925, seeking greater autonomy or independence from the rest of the UK.
The term "" became common for describing the area to which English law applied, and in 1955 Cardiff was proclaimed as Wales' capital.
The Welsh Language Society was formed in 1962, in response to long-held fears that the language might soon die out.
Nationalist sentiment grew following the flooding of the in 1965 to create a reservoir to supply water to the English city of.
Although 35 of the 36 Welsh MPs voted against the bill one abstainedParliament passed the bill and the village of was submerged, highlighting Wales' powerlessness in her own affairs in the face of the numerical superiority of English MPs in Parliament.
Both the and Welsh Defence Movement, abbreviated as MAC were formed as a direct result of the Tryweryn destruction, conducting campaigns from 1963.
In the years leading up to the investiture of as Prince of Wales in 1969, these groups were responsible for a number of bomb blasts—destroying water pipes, tax and other offices and part of the dam at the new project in Montgomeryshire, being built to supply water to the English Midlands.
At a by-election in 1966, won the parliamentary seat ofPlaid Cymru's first Parliamentary seat.
The next year, the was repealed and a legal definition of Wales and of the boundary with England was stated.
By the end of the 1960s, the regional policy of bringing businesses into disadvantaged areas of Wales through financial incentives had proven very successful in diversifying the industrial economy.
This policy, begun in 1934, was enhanced by the construction of and improvements in transport communications, most notably the linking south Wales directly to London.
It was believed that the foundations for stable economic growth had been firmly established in Wales during this period, but this was shown to be wildly optimistic after the saw the collapse of much of the manufacturing base that had been built over the preceding forty years.
Devolution In thein 1979, the Welsh electorate voted against the creation of a Welsh assembly with an 80 per cent majority for the "no" vote.
In 1997, a on the same issue secured a "yes" by a very narrow majority 50.
The Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru was set up in 1999 under the and has the power to determine how Wales' central government budget is spent and administered, although the UK parliament reserves the right to set limits on the powers of the Welsh Assembly.
The governments of the United Kingdom and of Wales almost invariably define Wales as a country.
The Welsh Government says: "Wales is not a Principality.
Although we are joined with England by land, and we are part of Great Britain, Wales is a country in its own right.
According to the Welsh Government: "Our Prince of Wales at the moment is Prince Charles, who is the present heir to the throne.
But he does not have a role in the governance of Wales, even though his title might suggest that he does.
Constitutionally, the UK is aits parliament and government in.
In the — the of the UK parliament — Wales is represented by 40 out of 650 from.
At the28 and MPs were elected, eight MPs and four MPs.
The is a department of the United Kingdom government responsible for Wales, whose minister the sits in the.
Wales held a in 1997 and chose to establish a form of self-government.
The consequent process of began with thewhich created the : Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru.
Powers of the Secretary of State for Wales were transferred to the devolved government on 1 July 1999, granting the Assembly the power to decide how the Westminster government's budget for is spent and administered.
The 1998 Act was amended by thewhich enhanced the Assembly's powers, giving it legislative powers akin to those of the and.
The Assembly has 60 members, known as Aelodau y Cynulliad.
Members AMs ACau are elected to four-year terms under an.
Forty of the AMs represent geographicalelected under the system.
The remaining 20 AMs representeach including between seven and nine constituencies, using the of.
The Assembly must elect awho selects ministers to form the.
Composition of the Assemblysince December 2018 Labour remained the largest Assembly party following thewinning 26 of the 60 seats.
Having insufficient support to form a government, the Labour Party entered into the '' agreement with Plaid Cymru, forming awith the Labour leader as First Minister.
Under the 'One Wales' agreement, a on giving the Welsh assembly full law-making powers was promised "as soon as practicable, at or before the end of the assembly term in 2011 " and both parties have agreed "in good faith to campaign for a successful outcome to such a referendum".
Other parties represented in the assembly were the the with 14 seats,who have 11 seats, and thewith five seats.
Carwyn Jones remained First Minister following the election, this time leading a Welsh Labour ministerial team.
The of the Assembly was of Welsh Labour.
After the election, Labour continues to form the largest group in the Assembly, with 29 AMs.
Following the election, the vote for First Minister initially resulted in a tie between Jones Labour and Plaid Cymru.
After discussions amongst the parties, a Labour government including the Liberal Democrat AM as Minister for Education was proposed with limited policy-based support from Plaid Cymru, and Jones was re-elected as First Minister.
Initially, Plaid Cymru formed the official opposition, with twelve AMs and the Conservative Party were the third party with eleven AMs.
In August 2016, one of the UKIP AMs left his group and continues to sit as an Independent member, and in October 2016, former Plaid Cymru president and inaugural Presiding Officer of the National Assembly left his party and also continues to sit as an Independent member.
In April 2017, a second UKIP AM left the party and joined the Conservative Assembly group without joining the party.
Areas of responsibility The twenty areas of responsibility devolved to the Welsh Government, known as "subjects", include agriculture, economic development, education, health, housing, local government, social services, tourism, transport and the Welsh language.
On its creation in 1999, the National Assembly for Wales had no primary legislative powers.
But since the GoWA 2006 came into effect in 2007, the Assembly has power to pass primary legislation as on some specific matters within the areas of devolved responsibility.
Further matters have been added subsequently, either directly by the UK Parliament or by the UK Parliament approving a LCO, a request from the National Assembly for additional powers.
The GoWA 2006 allows for the Assembly to gain primary lawmaking powers on a more extensive range of matters within the same devolved areas if approved in a referendum.
A on extending the lawmaking powers of the National Assembly was accordingly held on 3 March 2011.
It asked: "Do you want the Assembly now to be able to make laws on all matters in the 20 subject areas it has powers for?
Consequently, the Assembly became empowered to make laws, known ason all matters in the subject areas, without needing the UK Parliament's agreement.
Foreign relations Wales is an of the European Union represented by four of the 751.
Relations between Wales and the United States are primarily conducted through thein addition to her and.
Nevertheless, the Welsh Assembly has deployed their own envoy to America, primarily to promote Wales-specific business interests.
The primary Welsh Government Office is based in thewith satellites in,and.
Commensurately, the United States has established a caucus to build direct relations with Wales.
Local government See also: For the purposes of local government, Wales has been divided into 22 council areas since 1996.
These "principal areas" are responsible for the provision of all local government services, including education, social work, environment and roads services.
Welsh-language forms are given in parentheses, where they differ from the English.
Note: Wales has six cities.
In addition to Cardiff, Newport and Swansea, the communities ofand also have.
Law and order Illustration of a Welsh judge from the By tradition, Welsh Law was compiled during an assembly held at around 930 byking of most of Wales between 942 and his death in 950.
The 'law of Hywel Dda' : Cyfraith Hywelas it became known, codified the previously existing that had evolved in Wales over centuries.
Welsh Law emphasised the payment of compensation for a crime to the victim, or the victim's kin, rather than punishment by the ruler.
Other than in thewhere law was imposed by the Marcher Lords, Welsh Law remained in force in Wales until the in 1284.
Marcher Law and Welsh Law for civil cases remained in force until annexed the whole of Wales under the often referred to as the Acts of Union of 1536 and 1543after which English law applied to the whole of Wales.
The provided that all laws that applied to England would automatically apply to Wales and the Anglo-Scottish border town of unless the law explicitly stated otherwise; this Act was repealed with regard to Wales in 1967.
English law has been the legal system of since 1536, although there is now a growing body of contemporary following.
English law is regarded as a system, with no major of the law and legal are binding as opposed to persuasive.
The court system is headed by the which is the highest court of appeal in the land for criminal and civil cases.
The is the highest as well as an.
The three divisions are the ; the and the.
Minor cases are heard by the or the.
In 2007 the Wales and Cheshire Region known as the Wales and Cheshire Circuit before 2005 came to an end when Cheshire was attached to the North-Western England Region.
From that point, Wales became a legal unit in its own right, although it remains part of the single of.
The Welsh Assembly has the authority to draft and approve laws outside of the system to meet the specific needs of Wales.
Under powers approved by a held in March 2011, it is empowered to pass primary legislation known as in relation to twenty subjects listed in the such as health and education.
Through this primary legislation, the can then also enact more specific.
Wales is served by four regional police forces, and.
There are five ; four in the southern half of the country and one in.
Wales has no women's prisons; female inmates are imprisoned in England.
Geography and natural history See also: and Wales is a generally mountainous on the western side of central southern.
It is about 170 miles 270 km north—south and 60 miles 97 km east—west.
The oft-quoted '' is about 20,779 km 2 8,023 sq mi.
Wales is bordered by England to the east and by sea in all other directions: the to the north and west, and the to the southwest and the to the south.
Wales has about 1,680 miles 2,700 km of coastline along the mean high water markincluding the mainland, Anglesey and Holyhead.
Much of Wales' diverse landscape is mountainous, particularly in the north and central regions.
The mountains were shaped during the last ice age, the.
The highest mountains in Wales are in Eryriof which five are over 1,000 m 3,300 ft.
The highest of these is Yr Wyddfaat 1,085 m 3,560 ft.
The 14 Welsh mountains, or 15 if including Garnedd Uchaf — often discounted because of its low — over 3,000 feet 910 metres high are known collectively as the and are located in a small area in the north-west.
The highest outside the 3000s isat 905 metres 2,969 feetin the south of Snowdonia.
The Bannau Brycheiniog are in the south highest pointat 886 metres 2,907 feetand are joined by the in highest pointat 752 metres 2,467 feet.
Wales has three : Snowdonia, Brecon Beacons and.
It has five ; Anglesey, the andthetheand the.
The Gower Peninsula was the first area in the United Kingdom to be designated as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, in 1956.
Forty two percent of the coastline of south and west Wales is designated aswith 13 specific designated strips of coastline maintained by Natural Resources Wales successor body to the Countryside Council for Wales.
As from 2017, the coastline of Wales has 45 and three Blue Flag marinas.
On the night of 25 October 1859, over 110 ships were destroyed off the coast of Wales when a hurricane blew in from the Atlantic.
More than 800 lives were lost across Britain because of the storm, but the greatest tragedy was the sinking of the off the coast of Anglesey in which 459 people died.
The number of shipwrecks around the coast of Wales reached a peak in the 19th century with over 100 vessels lost and an average loss of life of about 78 sailors per year.
Wartime action caused losses near Holyhead, and Swansea.
Because of offshore rocks and unlit islands, Anglesey and Pembrokeshire are still notorious for shipwrecks, most notably the in 1996.
The first border between Wales and England was zonal, apart from around the River Wye, which was the first accepted boundary.
Offa's Dyke was supposed to form an early distinct line but this was thwarted by Gruffudd ap Llewellyn, who reclaimed swathes of land beyond the dyke.
The Act of Union of 1536 formed a linear border stretching from the mouth of the Dee to the mouth of the Wye.
Even after the Act of Union, many of the borders remained vague and moveable until the Welsh Sunday Closing act of 1881, which forced local businesses to decide which country they fell within to accept either the Welsh or English law.
All the "wonders" are in north Wales: Snowdon the highest mountainthe bells the peal of bells in the medieval church of at Gresfordthe bridge built in 1347 over the River Deea site at inthe Wrecsam 16th-century tower ofthe trees ancient yew trees in the churchyard of St.
Mary's at Overton-on-Dee and — a tall waterfall, at 240 ft 73 m.
The wonders are part of the rhyme: Pistyll Rhaeadr and Wrexham steeple, Snowdon's mountain without its people, Overton yew trees, St Winefride's Wells, Llangollen bridge and Gresford bells.
Geology See also: The earliest period of the era, thetakes its name from thewhere geologists first identified Cambrian remnants.
In evolutionary studies the Cambrian is the period when most major groups of complex animals appeared the.
The older rocks underlying the Cambrian rocks in Wales lacked fossils which could be used to differentiate their various groups and were referred to as.
In the mid-19th century, two prominent geologists, and who first proposed the name of the Cambrian periodindependently used their studies of the geology of Wales to establish certain principles of and.
The next two periods of the Paleozoic era, the andwere named after ancient Celtic tribes from this area based on Murchison's and Sedgwick's work.
Climate 2 Average max.
It has a changeable, and is one of the wettest countries in Europe.
Welsh weather is often cloudy, wet and windy, with warm summers and mild winters.
Daylight at midwinter there falls to just over seven and a half hours.
The country's wide geographic variations cause localised differences in sunshine, rainfall and temperature.
Average annual coastal temperatures reach 10.
It becomes cooler at higher altitudes; annual temperatures decrease on average approximately 0.
Consequently, the higher parts of experience average annual temperatures of 5 °C 41 °F.
Temperatures in Wales remain higher than would otherwise be expected at its latitude because of thea branch of the.
The ocean current, bringing warmer water to northerly latitudes, has a similar effect on most of north-west Europe.
As well as its influence on Wales' coastal areas, air warmed by the Gulf Stream blows further inland with the prevailing winds.
Tor Bay and, Swansea At low elevations, summers tend to be warm and sunny.
Average maximum temperatures range between 19 and 22 °C 66 and 72 °F.
Winters tend to be fairly wet, but rainfall is rarely excessive and the temperature usually stays above freezing.
Spring and autumn feel quite similar and the temperatures tend to stay above 14 °C 57 °F — also the average annual daytime temperature.
The sunniest time of year tends to be between May and August.
The south-western coast is the sunniest part of Wales, averaging over 1700 hours of sunshine annually.
Wales' sunniest town isPembrokeshire.
The dullest time of year tends to be between November and January.
The least sunny areas are the mountains, some parts of which average less than 1200 hours of sunshine annually.
The prevailing wind is south-westerly.
Coastal areas are the windiest, occur most often during winter, on average between 15 and 30 days each year, depending on location.
Inland, gales average fewer than six days annually.
Wales pictured from the Rainfall patterns show significant variation.
The further west, the higher the expected rainfall; up to 40% more.
At low elevations, rain is unpredictable at any time of year, although the showers tend to be shorter in summer.
The uplands of Wales have most rain, normally more than 50 days of rain during the winter months December to Februaryfalling to around 35 rainy days during the summer months June to August.
Annual rainfall in Snowdonia averages between 3,000 millimetres 120 in and 5,000 millimetres 200 in 's summit.
The likelihood is that it will fall as sleet or snow when the temperature falls below 5 °C 41 °F and snow tends to be lying on the ground there for an average of 30 days a year.
Snow falls several times each winter in inland areas but is relatively uncommon around the coast.
Average annual rainfall in those areas can be less than 1,000 millimetres 39 in.
Flora and fauna See also:, and Wales' wildlife is typical of Britain with several distinctions.
Because of its long coastline, Wales hosts a variety of seabirds.
The coasts and surrounding islands are home to colonies of, and.
In comparison, with 60 per cent of Wales above the 150m contour, the country also supports a variety of upland habitat birds, including and.
In total, more than 200 different species of bird have been seen at the reserve atincluding seasonal visitors.
Larger mammals, including brown bears, wolves and wildcats, died out during the Norman period.
Today, mammals include shrews, voles, badgers, otters, stoats, weasels, hedgehogs and fifteen species of bat.
Two species of small rodent, the and theare of special Welsh note being found at the historically undisturbed border area.
Thewhich has been sighted occasionally, has not been officially recorded since the 1950s.
The was nearly driven to extinction in Britain, but hung on in Wales and is now rapidly spreading.
The waters of south-west Wales of Gower, Pembrokeshire and Cardigan Bay attract marine animals, includingAtlanticleatherback turtles, jellyfish, crabs and lobsters.
Pembrokeshire and Ceredigion, in particular, are recognised as an area of international importance forand has the only summer residence of bottlenose dolphins in the whole of the UK.
River fish of note include, andwhilst the is unique to Wales, found only in.
Wales is also known for its shellfish, including, and.
The north facing high grounds of Snowdonia support a pre-glacial flora including the iconic Snowdon lily — — and other species such asand.
Wales also hosts a number of plant species not found elsewhere in the UK including the spotted rock-rose on Anglesey and on the Gower.
Economy A profile of the economy of Wales in 2012 Over the last 250 years, Wales has been transformed first from a predominantly agricultural country to an industrial, and now a.
Since the Second World War, the has come to account for the majority of jobs, a feature typifying most advanced economies.
Total headline GVA in Wales in 2016 was £59.
In the three months to December 2017, the for working-age adults in Wales was 72.
From the middle of the 19th century until the post-war era, the mining and export of coal was a dominant industry.
At its peak of production in 1913, nearly 233,000 men and women were employed in themining 56 million tons of coal.
Cardiff was once the largest coal-exporting port in the world and, for a few years before the First World War, handled a greater tonnage of cargo than either London or Liverpool.
In the 1920s, over 40% of the male Welsh population worked in.
According tothe "devastated Wales", north and south, because of its "overwhelming dependence on coal and steel".
From the mid-1970s, the Welsh economy faced massive restructuring with large numbers of jobs in traditional heavy industry disappearing and being replaced eventually by new ones in and in services.
In the late 1970s and early 1980s, Wales was successful in attracting an above average share of in the UK.
However, much of the new industry was essentially of a "branch factory" "screwdriver factory" type where a manufacturing plant or call centre is located in Wales but the most highly paid jobs in the company are retained elsewhere.
Poor-quality soil in much of Wales is unsuitable for crop-growing and farming has traditionally been the focus of agriculture.
The Welsh landscape protected by three national parks and 45as well as the unique culture of Wales, attract large numbers of tourists, who play an especially vital role in the economy of rural areas.
Wales has struggled to develop or attract high employment in sectors such as finance and research and development, attributable in part to a comparative lack of 'economic mass' i.
The lack of high value-added employment is reflected in lower economic output per head relative to other regions of the UK — in 2002 it stood at 90% of the EU25 average and around 80% of the UK average.
In June 2008, Wales made history by becoming the first nation in the world to be awarded.
The is the currency used in Wales.
Numerous Welsh banks issued their own banknotes in the 19th century.
The last bank to do so closed in 1908; since then, although banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland continue to have the right to issue banknotes in their own countries, the has a monopoly on the issue of banknotes in Wales.
Theestablished in Cardiff by in 1971, was taken over by the in 1988 and absorbed into its parent company in 2002.
Thewho issue the circulated through the whole of the UK, have been based at a single site in since 1980.
Sincein 1971, at least one of the coins in UK circulation has depicted a Welsh design, e.
However, Wales has not been represented on any coin minted from 2008.
Transport The The running from West to linksand.
The section of the motorway managed by the Welsh Government is from the to services.
The has a similar role along the north Wales coast, connecting and with Wrexham and Flintshire.
It also links to northwest England, principally.
The main north-south Wales link is thewhich runs from Cardiff to.
Providing links to European, African and North American destinations, it is about 12 miles 19 km southwest ofin the Vale of Glamorgan.
Intra-Wales flights run between Anglesey Valley and Cardiff, operated since 2017 by.
Other internal flights operate to northern England, Scotland and Northern Ireland.
The Welsh Government manages those parts of the British railway network within Wales, through the train operating company.
The Cardiff region has its own.
Services between north and south Wales operate through the English towns of and along the.
All trains in Wales are diesel-powered since no lines have been electrified.
However, the branch of the used by services from to Cardiff is undergoing electrification.
Wales has four commercial ports.
Regular ferry services to Ireland operate fromand.
The Swansea to service was cancelled in 2006, reinstated in March 2010, and withdrawn again in 2012.
David's Building, Lampeter campus, Prifysgol Cymru, Y Drindod Dewi Sant.
Founded in 1822, it is the oldest degree awarding institution in Wales.
A distinct education system has developed in Wales.
Formal education before the 18th century was the preserve of the elite.
The first grammar schools were established in Welsh towns such asBrecon and Cowbridge.
One of the first successful schooling systems was started bywho introduced the circulating schools in the 1730s; believed to have taught half the country's population to read.
In the 19th century, with increasing state involvement in education, Wales was forced to adopt an education system that was English in ethos even though the country was predominantly Non-conformist, Welsh-speaking and demographically uneven because of the economic expansion in the south.
In some schools, to ensure Welsh children spoke English at school, the was used; a policy seen as a hated symbol of English oppression.
The "not", a piece of wood hung round the neck by string, was given to any child overheard speaking Welsh, who would pass it to a different child if overheard speaking Welsh.
At the end of the day, the wearer of the "not" would be beaten.
The extent of its practice, however, is difficult to determine.
State and local governmental edicts resulted in schooling in the English language which, following the Treachery of the Blue Bookswas seen as more academic and worthwhile for children.
The opened in Aberystwyth in 1872.
The Welsh Intermediate Education Act of 1889 created 95 secondary schools.
The Welsh Department for the Board of Education followed in 1907, which gave Wales its first significant educational devolution.
A resurgence in Welsh-language schools in the latter half of the 20th century at nursery and primary level saw attitudes shift towards teaching in the medium of Welsh.
Welsh is a compulsory subject in all of Wales' state schools for pupils aged 5—16 years old.
While there has never been an exclusively Welsh-language college, Welsh-medium higher education is delivered through the individual universities and has since 2011 been supported by the Welsh National College as a delocalised federal institution.
In 2016—2017, there were 1,547 maintained schools in Wales.
In 2016—2017, the country had 466,508 pupils taught by 23,910 full-time equivalent teachers.
HealthcareCardiff Public healthcare in Wales is provided by NHS Wales GIG Cymruwhich was originally formed as part of the NHS structure for England and Wales created by thebut with powers over the NHS in Wales coming under the Secretary of State for Wales in 1969.
In turn, responsibility for NHS Wales was passed to the Welsh Assembly and Executive under devolution in 1999.
Historically, Wales was served by smaller 'cottage' hospitals, built as voluntary institutions.
As newer more expensive diagnostic techniques and treatments became available through medical advancement, much of the clinical work of the country has been concentrated in newer, larger district hospitals.
In 2006, there were seventeen district hospitals in Wales, although none situated in Powys.
NHS Wales provides public healthcare in Wales and employs some 90,000 staff, making it Wales' biggest employer.
The Minister for Health and Social Services is the person within the Welsh Government who holds cabinet responsibilities for both health and social care in Wales.
A 2009 Welsh health survey, conducted by the Welsh Assembly, reported that 51 per cent of adults reported their health good or excellent, while 21 per cent described their health as fair or poor.
The survey also recorded that 27 per cent of Welsh adults had a long-term chronic illness, such as arthritis, asthma, diabetes and heart disease.
The 2018 National Survey of Wales, which enquired into health-related lifestyle choices, reported that 19 per cent of the adult population were18 per cent admitted drinking alcohol above weekly recommended guidelines, while 53 per cent undertook the recommended 150 minutes of physical activity each week.
Demography Main articles: and Population history The estimated pre-1801 and census post-1801 population figures recorded for Wales are: Year Population of Wales 1536 278,000 1620 360,000 1770 500,000 1801 587,000 1851 1,163,000 1911 2,421,000 1921 2,656,000 1939 2,487,000 1961 2,644,000 1991 2,811,865 2011 3,063,000 The population of Wales doubled from 587,000 in 1801 to 1,163,000 in 1851 and had reached 2,421,000 by 1911.
Most of the increase came in the coal mining districts, especiallywhich grew from 71,000 in 1801 to 232,000 in 1851 and 1,122,000 in 1911.
Part of this increase can be attributed to the seen in most industrialising countries during theas death rates dropped and birth rates remained steady.
However, there was also large-scale migration into Wales during the Industrial Revolution.
The English were the most numerous group, but there were also considerable numbers of Irish and smaller numbers of other ethnic groups, includingwho migrated to South Wales.
Wales also received immigration from various parts of the British in the 20th century, and and communities add to the ethnocultural mix, particularly in urban Wales.
Many of these self-identify as Welsh.
Swansea is Wales' second most populous city.
The showed Wales' population to be 3,063,456, the highest in its history.
In 2011, 27 per cent 837,000 of the total population of Wales were not born in Wales, including 636,000 people 21 per cent of the total population of Wales who were born in England.
The main population and industrial areas are inincluding the cities of Cardiff, Swansea and Newport and the nearbywith another significant population in the north-east around and.
According to the 2001 census, 96 per cent of the population wasand 2.
Most non-white groups were concentrated in Cardiff, Newport and Swansea.
Welsh Asian and African communities developed mainly through immigration after the Second World War.
In the early 21st century, parts of Wales saw an increased number of immigrants settle from recent such as Poland; though a 2007 study showed a relatively low number of employed immigrant workers from the former Eastern Bloc countries in Wales compared to other regions of the United Kingdom.
The 2001 UK census was criticised in Wales for not offering 'Welsh' as an option to describe respondents' national identity.
Partly to address this concern, the 2011 census asked the question "How would you describe your national identity?
Respondents were instructed to "tick all that apply" from a list of options that included Welsh.
The outcome was that 57.
No Welsh national identity was indicated by 34.
The proportion giving their sole national identity as British was 16.
No British national identity was indicated by 73.
The 2011 census showed Wales to be less ethnically diverse than any region of England: 93.
The lowest proportion of White British 80.
In 2001, a quarter of the Welsh population were born outside Wales, mainly in England; about 3 per cent were born outside the UK.
The proportion born in Wales varies across the country, with the highest percentages in the and the lowest in and parts of the north-east.
In both and92 per cent were Welsh-born, compared with only 51 per cent and 56 per cent in the counties of and.
The TFR in Wales was 1.
The majority of births are to unmarried women 58 per cent of births in 2011 were outside marriage.
About one in 10 births 10.
A 2010 study estimated that 35 per cent of the Welsh population have 5.
However, many modern surnames derived from old Welsh personal names actually arose in England.
He argued that the Brythonic languages originated in France and that the Goidelic languages originated in the.
Lhuyd concluded that as the languages had been of origin, the people who spoke those more info were Celts.
According to a more recent hypothesis, also widely embraced today, Goidelic and Brythonic languages, collectively known asevolved together for some time separately from such as and.
From the 18th century, the peoples of, and Wales were known increasingly as Celts, and they are regarded as the modern today.
The helped to maintain the use of Welsh in daily life.
The was translated by in 1567 followed by the complete Bible by in 1588.
The and the provide that the English and Welsh languages be treated on a basis of equality, and both are used as working languages within the National Assembly.
Both English and Welsh are considered official languages of Wales, with Welsh further recognised in law as having "official status".
English is spoken by almost all people in Wales and is the main language in most of the country.
It has been influenced significantly by Welsh grammar and includes words derived from Welsh.
According to John Davies, Wenglish has "been the object of far greater prejudice than anything suffered by Welsh".
Northern and western Wales retain many areas where Welsh is spoken as a first language by the majority of the population, and English learnt as a second language.
The 2011 Census showed 562,016 people, 19.
Although in young children continues, life-long monoglotism in Welsh is recognised to be a thing of the past.
Road signs in Wales are generally in both English and Welsh; where differ in the two languages, both versions are used e.
Under new regulations that came into force in 2016, the requires local authorities and to ensure that all new or renewed road signs that use both languages to feature the Welsh language first.
During the 20th century, a number of small communities of speakers of languages other than Welsh or English, such as orestablished themselves in Wales as a result of immigration.
ReligionPembrokeshire The largest religion in Wales is Christianity, with 57.
The with 56,000 adherents has the largest attendance of the denominations.
It is a province of theand was part of the Church of England until disestablishment in 1920 under the.
The first in Wales was founded at in 1638 by.
The was born out of the in the 18th century and seceded from the in 1811.
The second largest attending faith in Wales iswith an estimated 43,000 adherents.
Non-Christian religions are small in Wales, making up approximately 2.
The 2011 census recorded 32.
The of Wales is Dewi Santwith Dydd Gŵyl Dewi Sant celebrated annually on link March.
In 1904, there was a religious revival known by some as thewales france game time simply The 1904 Revival which started through the evangelism of and saw large numbers of people converting to non-Anglican Christianity, sometimes whole communities.
Roberts' style of preaching became the blueprint for new religious bodies such as and the.
The Apostolic Church holds its annual Apostolic Conference in Swansea each year, usually in August.
There are also communities of andmainly in the south Wales cities of Newport, Cardiff and Swansea, while the largest concentration of is in the western rural county of.
Judaism was the first non-Christian faith to be established in Wales since Roman times, though by 2001 the community has declined to approximately 2,000.
Wales has three : ; ; and the.
Mythology Main article: The remnants of the native Celtic of the pre-Christian was passed down orally, in much-altered form, by the cynfeirdd the early poets.
Some of their work survives in much laterknown as: the and the both 13th-century ; the and the both 14th-century ; and the c.
The stories from the White and Red Books are known as thea title given to them by their first translator,and also used by subsequent translators.
Poems such as The Battle of the Trees and mnemonic list-texts like the and thealso contain mythological material.
These texts also include the earliest forms of the and the traditional history of post.
Other sources of Welsh include the 9th-century Latin historical compilation the History of the Britons and 's 12th-century Latin the History of the Kings of Britainas well as later folklore, such as The Welsh Fairy Book by W.
Literature in Wales Welsh poetry from the 13th-century Wales can claim one of the oldest unbroken literary traditions in Europe.
The literary tradition of Wales stretches back to the sixth century and includes andregarded by historian as among the finest Latin authors of the Middle Ages.
The earliest body of Welsh verse, by poets andsurvive not in their original form, but in medieval versions and have undergone significant linguistic changes.
Welsh poetry and native lore and learning survived the Dark Ages, through the era of the c.
The Poets of the Princes were professional poets who composed eulogies and elegies to the Welsh princes while the Poets of the Gentry were a school of poets that favoured the metre.
The period is notable for producing one of Wales' greatest poets.
After the Anglicisation of the gentry the tradition declined.
Despite the extinction of the professional poet, the integration of the native elite into a wider cultural world did bring other literary benefits.
Renaissance scholars such as and brought ideals from English universities when they returned to Wales.
While in 1588 became the first person to translate thefrom Greek and Hebrew.
From the 16th century onwards the proliferation of the 'free-metre' verse became the most important development in Welsh poetry, but from the middle of the 17th century a host of imported accentual metres from England became very popular.
By the 19th century the creation of a Welsh epic, fuelled by the eisteddfod, became an obsession with Welsh-language writers.
The output of this period was prolific in wales france game time but unequal in quality.
Initially the eisteddfod was askance with the religious denominations, but in time these bodies came to dominate the competitions, with the bardic themes becoming increasingly scriptural and didactic.
The period is notable for the adoption by Welsh poets ofmade popular by the eisteddfod movement.
Major developments in 19th-century Welsh literature include Lady Charlotte Guest's translation of the Mabinogion, one of the most important medieval Welsh prose tales of Celtic mythology, into English.
The 20th century experienced an important shift away from the stilted and long-winded Victorian Welsh prose, with leading the way with his 1902 work Ymadawiad Arthur.
The slaughter in the trenches of the First World War had a profound effect on Welsh literature with a more pessimistic style of prose championed by and.
The industrialisation of south Wales saw a click the following article shift with the likes of who used the poetry and metre of a bygone rural Wales but in the context of an industrial landscape.
Though the inter-war period is dominated byfor his political and reactionary views as much as his plays, poetry and criticism.
The careers of some 1930s writers continued after World War Two, including those of, andwhose most famous work was first broadcast in 1954.
Thomas was one of the most notable and popular Welsh writers of the 20th century and one of the most innovative poets of his time.
The attitude of the post-war generation of Welsh writers in English towards Wales differs from the previous generation, in that they were more sympathetic to Welsh nationalism and to the Welsh language.
The change can be linked to the nationalist fervour generated by and the burning of the Bombing School on the in 1936, along with a sense of crisis generated by World War II.
In poetry 1913—2000 was the most important figure throughout the second half of the twentieth century.
While he "did not learn the Welsh language until he was 30 and wrote all his poems in English", he wanted the Welsh language to be made the first language of Wales, and the official policy of bilingualism abolished.
The major novelist in the second half of the twentieth century was born 1919who during his long writing career published over twenty novels, which surveys the political and cultural history of twentieth-century Wales.
Another novelist of the post-Second-World-War era was 1921—88.
Born nearWilliams continued the earlier tradition of writing from a left-wing perspective on the Welsh industrial scene in his trilogy "" 1960"Second Generation" 1964and "The Fight for Manod" 1979.
He also enjoyed a reputation as a cultural historian.
The National Museum is made up of seven sites across the country, including theand.
In April 2001, the attractions attached to the National Museum were granted free entry by the Assembly, and this action saw the visitor numbers to the sites increase during 2001—2002 by 87.
Aberystwyth is home to thewhich houses some of the most important collections in Wales, including the and the collection.
As well as its printed collection the Library holds important Welsh art collections including portraits and photographs, ephemera such as postcards, posters and maps.
Visual arts Main article: Many works of have been found in Wales.
In the period, the of Wales was part of the of the.
A number of survive, of which the 8th-century and are the most notable.
The 11th-century now in is certainly Welsh, made inand shows a late Insular style with unusual Viking influence.
The best of the few Welsh artists of the 16th—18th centuries tended to leave the country to work, many of them moving to London or Italy.
Although more notable for his Italian scenes, he painted several Welsh scenes on visits from London.
By the late 18th century, the popularity of grew and clients were found in the larger Welsh towns, allowing more Welsh artists to stay in their homeland.
Artists from outside Wales were also drawn to paint Welsh scenery, at first because of the.
Then in the early 19th century, the preventing the to continental Europe, travel through Wales came to be considered more accessible.
The Bard, 1774, by 1742—1803 An in 1857 provided for the establishment of a number of art schools throughout the United Kingdom and the opened in 1865.
Graduates still very often had to leave Wales to work, but became a popular centre for artists and its artists' colony helped form the in 1881.
The sculptor Sir William made many works for Welsh commissions, although he had settled in London.
Sir was Welsh by origin but spent little time in Wales.
Many Welsh painters gravitated towards the art capitals of Europe.
However, the landscapists Sir and lived in Wales for most of their lives, while remaining in touch with the wider art world.
He was a figurative painter in international styles including.
Various artists have moved to Wales, includingthe London-Welshman and the sculptor.
South Wales had several notableone of the first important sites being the inwhich began producing earthenware in the 17th century.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, with more scientific methods becoming available more refined ceramics were produced led by the 1764—1870, also known as "Swansea pottery" and later near Cardiff, which was in operation from 1813 to 1822 making fine and then utilitarian pottery until 1920.
National symbols and anthem British coin reverse depicting the2000 The incorporates the Y Ddraig Goch of along with the colours of green and white.
It was used by at the in 1485, after which it was carried in state to.
The red dragon was then included in the Tudor royal arms to signify their Welsh descent.
It was officially recognised as the Welsh national flag in 1959.
On its creation the incorporated the flags of the kingdoms of Scotland, of Ireland and the which then represented the Kingdom of England and Wales.
The combined flag for both England and Wales arose from the Laws in Wales Act of 1535 which annexed Wales to England.
The and the are both symbols of Wales.
The origins of the leek can be traced to the 16th century, while the daffodil became popular in the 19th century, encouraged by.
This is attributed to confusion or association between the Welsh for leek, cenhinen, and that for daffodil, cenhinen Bedr or St.
A report in 1916 gave preference to the leek, which has appeared on British pound coins.
The is a national symbol of Welsh wildlife.
The Prince of Wales' is also sometimes used to symbolise Wales.
The badge, known as theconsists of three white feathers emerging from a gold coronet.
A ribbon below the coronet bears the motto Ich dien I serve.
Several Welsh representative teams, including the Welsh rugby union, and Welsh regiments in the thefor example use the badge or a stylised version of it.
There have been attempts made to curtail the use of the emblem for commercial purposes and restrict its use to those authorised by the Prince of Wales.
SportCardiff More than 50 regulate and organise their sports in Wales.
Most of those involved in competitive sports select, organise and manage individuals or teams to represent their country at international events or fixtures against other countries.
Wales is represented at major world sporting events such as the, and the.
At theWelsh athletes compete alongside those of Scotland, England and Northern Ireland as part of a team.
Although football has traditionally been the more popular sport inis seen as a symbol of Welsh identity and an expression of https://agohome.ru/time-games/real-time-multiplayer-games-online.html consciousness.
The takes part in the annual and has also competed in everyhosting the tournament in.
The five professional sides that replaced the traditional club sides in major competitions in 2003 were replaced in 2004 by the four regions:, and.
The Welsh regional teams play in thethethe and the.
Wales has had its ownthesince 1992.
For historical reasons, six Welsh clubs play in the ;, and.
Famous Welsh players over the years include, and.
Atthe achieved their best ever finish, reaching the semi-finals where they were beaten by eventual champions Portugal.
Currently two professional clubs, the based in and the based in compete in the 's competition.
The Crusaders competed in the top level competition from 2009—2011.
A professional existed from 1908 to 1910.
In internationalWales and England field a single representative team, administered by the ECBcalled theor simply 'England'.
Occasionally, a separate play limited-overs competitions.
Wales has produced several world-class participants of individual and team sports including players, and.
Track athletes who have made a mark on the world stage, including the 110-metre hurdler who is a former world record holder and the winner of numerous Olympic, World and European medals as well as who has won 11 Paralympic gold medals.
Cyclist won gold medals at theand championships; won the.
Wales also has a tradition of producing world-class boxers.
Other former boxing world champions include,and.
Wales has hosted several international sporting events.
These include thethethe and the.
Media See also: All Welsh television broadcasts are.
The last of the transmitters ceased broadcasts in April 2010, and Wales became the UK's first nation.
Cardiff is home to the television output of Wales.
Based inCardiff, it produces Welsh-oriented English and Welsh-language television forand channels.
BBC Cymru Wales has also produced programmes, such asandshown worldwide.
S4C, based inCardiff, first broadcast on 1 November 1982.
Its output was mostly Welsh-language at peak hours but shared English-language content with at other times.
Since the in April 2010, the channel has broadcast exclusively in Welsh.
BBC Cymru Wales provide S4C with ten hours of programming per week.
Their remaining output is commissioned from ITV and independent producers.
A number of BBC productions, such as andhave been filmed in Wales.
BBC Cymru Wales is Wales' only national radio broadcaster.
A number of independent radio stations broadcast to the Welsh regions, predominantly in English.
Several regional radio stations broadcast in Welsh: output ranges from two, two-minute news bulletins each weekdaythrough over 14 hours of Welsh-language programmes weeklyto essentially https://agohome.ru/time-games/time-management-games-online-free-no-download.html stations offering between 37 and 44 per cent of programme content formerly Champion 103 and respectively.
Most of the newspapers sold and read in Wales are national newspapers available throughout Britain, unlike in Scotland where many newspapers have rebranded into Scottish-based titles.
The is Wales' only national daily newspaper.
Wales-based regional daily newspapers include: which covers north Wales ; Swansea ; Cardiff ; and Newport.
Wales on Sunday is the only Welsh Sunday newspaper to cover the whole of Wales.
The WBC is the Welsh Government funded body tasked with promoting Welsh literature.
The WBC provides publishing grants for qualifying English- and Welsh-language publications.
Around 600—650 books are published each year, by some of the dozens of Welsh publishers.
Wales' main publishing houses include,the and.
Magazines published in Welsh and English cover general and specialist subjects.
Cambria, a Welsh affairs magazine published bi-monthly in English, has subscribers in over 30 countries.
Titles published quarterly in English include Planet and.
Welsh-language magazines include the current affairs titles View published weekly and Opinion monthly.
Among the specialist magazines, Y Wawr The Dawn is published quarterly bythe national organisation for women.
The Essayista quarterly publication byfirst appeared in 1845; the oldest Welsh publication still in print.
Cuisine See also: About 78% of the land surface of Wales is given time magazine top 25 ipad games of all time to agricultural use.
However, very little of this wales france game time arable land; the vast majority consists of permanent grass pasture or rough grazing for herd animals such as sheep and cows.
Although both beef and dairy cattle are raised widely, especially in Carmarthenshire and Pembrokeshire, Wales is more well known for its and thus lamb is the meat traditionally associated with Welsh source />Traditional dishes include made from Porphyra umbilicalis, an edible ; fruit bread ; a lamb stew ; ; ; and.
Although Wales has its own traditional food and has absorbed much of the cuisine of England, Welsh diets now owe more to the countries ofand the.
Performing arts Music Traditional Welsh folk singer and harpistlive on stage at the Wales is often referred to as "the land of song", and is notable for its harpists, male choirs, and solo artists.
The principal Welsh festival of music and poetry is the annual.
The Llangollen echoes the National Eisteddfod but provides an opportunity for the singers and musicians of the world to perform.
Traditional music and dance in Wales is supported by a myriad of societies.
The Welsh Folk Song Society has published a number of collections of songs and tunes.
Traditional instruments of Wales include telyn deiresfiddle, bowed lyrepibgorn hornpipe and other instruments.
The Society promotes its specific singing art primarily through an annual one-day festival.
The performs in Wales and internationally.
The is based at the inwhile the was the first of its type in the world.
Wales has a tradition of producing notable singers, including,,, and.
Popular bands that emerged from Wales include the Beatles-nurtured group in the 1960s, and in the 1970s and in the 1980s.
Many groups emerged during the 1990s, led by please click for source, followed by the likes of the and ; notable during this period were, and who gained popular success as dual-language artists.
Recently successful Welsh bands include, and.
The Welsh traditional and scene is in resurgence with performers and bands such as, and.
Male voice choirs emerged in the 19th century and continue today.
Originally these choirs where formed as the tenor and bass sections of chapel choirs, and embraced the popular secular hymns of the day.
Many of the historic choirs survive in modern Wales, singing a mixture of traditional and popular songs.
Drama ' portrayal of Hannibal Lecter was named the by the.
The earliest surviving Welsh plays are two medievalY Tri Brenin o Gwlen "The three Kings from Cologne" and Y Dioddefaint a'r Atgyfodiad "The Passion and the Resurrection".
A recognised Welsh tradition of theatre emerged during the 18th century, in the form of ana metrical play performed at fairs and markets.
The larger Welsh towns began building theatres during the 19th century, and attracted the likes of and to Wales.
Along with the playhouses, there existed mobile companies at visiting fairs, though from 1912 most of these travelling theatres settled, purchasing theatres to perform in.
Drama in the early 20th century thrived, but the country failed to produce a Welsh National Theatre company.
After the Second World War the substantial number of amateur companies that had existed before the outbreak of hostilities reduced by two-thirds.
The increasing competition from television in the 1950s and 1960s led to a need for greater professionalism in the theatre.
As a result, plays by and and others were staged, while Welsh actors, including, andwere establishing themselves as artistic talents.
Other Welsh actors to have crossed the Atlantic more recently include,and.
Wales has also produced well known including, and.
Dance Dancing is a popular pastime in Wales; traditional dances include and.
The first mention of dancing in Wales is in a 12th-century account bybut by the 19th century traditional dance had all but died out; this is attributed to the influence of Nonconformists and their belief that any physical diversion was worthless and satanic, especially mixed dancing.
These ancient dances, orally passed down, were almost single-handedly rescued by Lois Blake 1890—1974 who recorded them in numerous instruction pamphlets, recording both and music.
In a similar vein, clog dancing was preserved and developed by the likes of Howel Wood 1882—1967 who perpetuated the art at local and national stages.
Clog dancing, traditionally a male dominated art, is now a common part of eisteddfodau.
In 2010, a 30-year traditional dance festival held in Caernarvon came to an end due to a lack of participants, though clog dancing has seen a revival in the 21st century.
The Welsh Folk Dance Society was founded in 1949; it supports a network of national amateur dance teams and publishes support material.
Diversions was formed in 1983, eventually becoming thenow the resident company at the Wales Millennium Centre.
Conversely, Wales does not have its own national ballet company.
Festivals As well as celebrating many of the traditional religious festivals of Great Britain, such as Easter and Christmas, Wales has its own unique celebratory days.
An early festivity was when local parishes would celebrate the patron saint of their local church.
This celebration died out in the 19th century, to be replaced by Saint David's Day, which is celebrated on 1 March throughout Wales, and by Welsh around the world.
Commemorating the patron saint of friendship and love, 's popularity has been increasing recently.
It is celebrated on 25 January in a similar way to St Valentine's Day: by exchanging cards and by holding parties and concerts.
It has largely been replaced by Hallowe'en.
Other festivities include May Daycelebrating the beginning of summer; Lammas Day ; and Candlemas Day.
It seems comparatively late as a place name, the nominative plural"men of Lloegr", being earlier and more common.
The English were sometimes referred to as an entity in early poetry Saeson, as today but just as often as Eingl AnglesIwys Wessex-menetc.
Lloegr and Sacson became the norm later when England emerged as a kingdom.
As for its origins, some scholars have suggested that it originally referred only to — at that time a powerful kingdom and for centuries the main foe of the Welsh.
It was then applied to the new kingdom of England as a whole see for instance ed.
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